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Linux Basics

To see current Directory - pwd

Example output, /User/Joel

List Directory - ls

For more advance view ls -ls for viewing file permission.

Change Directory - cd

Example, cd Document

cd .. to go back up one directory (from /Joel/Document to /Joel)

Copy — cp

Example, cp Joel.txt Document (Copy to Document)

Example, cp Joel.txt Joel1.txt (Make 2 copy of same file but different name)

Move (Cut) — mv

Example, mv Joel.txt Document (Move to Document)

Example, mv Joel.txt Joel1.txt (To rename file)

Remove (delete) - rm

rm to remove normal file

rm -rf force remove, to remove directory(folder) containing files/folders

Remove Directory (Folder)

Only works if folder is empty if not use rm -rf

Text Editor, nano or vi

Example nano Joel.txt

If file already exists it will edit it, if it doesn’t exists it will create one when you save it.

Get root privilege sudo

Example sudo nano Joel.txt, to edit file that require root access

Example sudo rm Joel.txt

Change file permission chmod 666

Example, chmod 666 Joel.txt

chmod 666 means that all users can read and write but do not execute

chmod 777 allows all actions for all users

chmod 744 allows only owner to do all actions, group and other are allowed only to read

echo for system to return output

Example, echo Joel, output, Joel

whoami to see current User name.